Talaq Ka Masla(Divorce Prob)
Divorce in Islam (Talaq Ka Masla) can take a variety of forms, some initiated by the husband and some initiated by the wife. The main traditional legal categories are talaq (repudiation), khulʿ (mutual divorce), judicial divorce and oaths. The theory and practice of divorce in the Islamic world have varied according to time and place. Historically, the rules of divorce were governed by sharia, as interpreted by traditional Islamic jurisprudence, and they differed depending on the legal school. Historical practice sometimes diverged from legal theory. In modern times, as personal status (family) laws were codified, they generally remained “within the orbit of Islamic law”, but control over the norms of divorce shifted from traditional jurists to the state.
Quranic Principles About (Talaq / Divorce)
According to the Quran, marriage is intended to be unbounded in time, as indicated by its characterization as a “firm bond” and by the rules governing divorce. The relationship between the spouses should ideally be based on love (mawadda wa rahma, 30:21) and important decisions concerning both spouses should be made by mutual consent. When marital harmony cannot be attained, the Quran allows and even advises the spouses to bring the marriage to an end (2:231), although this decision is not to be taken lightly, and the community is called upon to intervene by appointing arbiters from the two families to attempt a reconciliation (4:35). The Quran establishes two further means to avoid hasty divorces. It prescribes two waiting periods of three months before the divorce is final in order to give the husband time to reconsider his decision. Moreover, a man who takes an oath not to have sexual intercourse with his wife, which would lead to automatic divorce, is allowed a four-month period to break his oath (2:226). The Quran substantially reformed the gender inequity of divorce practices that existed in pre-Islamic Arabia, although some patriarchal elements survived and others flourished during later centuries. Before Islam, divorce among the Arabs was governed by unwritten customary law, which varied according to region and tribe, and its observance depended on the authority of the individuals and groups involved. In this system, women were particularly vulnerable.
The Quranic rules of marriage and divorce provided a fixed set of norms for all Muslims, backed by divine authority and enforced by the community. The early Islamic reforms included giving the wife a possibility to initiate divorce, abrogation of the husband’s claim to his wife’s property, condemnation of divorce without the compelling reason, criminalizing unfounded claims of infidelity made by the husband, and the institution of financial responsibilities of the husband toward his divorced wife. In pre-Islamic times, men kept their wives in a state of “limbo” by continually repudiating them and taking them back at will. The Quran limited the number of repudiations to three, after which the man cannot take his wife back without an intervening marriage to another man. Additionally, the pre-Islamic bridewealth (mahr), which was paid by the groom to the bride’s family, was transformed into a dower, which became property of the wife, though some scholars believe that the practice of giving at least a part of the mahr to the bride began shortly before the advent of Islam. The subject of divorce is addressed in four different surahs of the Quran, including the general principle articulated in (2:231)
If you divorce women, and they reach their appointed term, hold them back in amity or let them go in amity. Do not hold them back out of malice, to be vindictive. Whoso does this does himself injustice”.